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 Marine
• Navigation exposures: sinking, stranding and
  collisions.
• Rolling, pitching, heaving, surging, swaying
  and yawing motions of ocean vessel.
• Temperature extremes resulting in heat or
  freeze damage.
• Wave impact (water shipping over the bow
  impacting on deck stowed cargo or containers
  during heavy weather).
 
 
Rail
• Acceleration and deceleration.
• Coupling impact during car humping operations.
• Derailments.
• Swaying on curves.
• Shock and vibrations.
 
 
Air
• Acceleration and deceleration forces.
• Changes in atmospheric pressure and temperature.
• Turbulence.
 
Surface
• Braking and acceleration.
• Coupling action and impact against loading
  docks.
• Road and weather conditions.
• Shock and vibrations.
• Vehicular accidents (collisions, overturns).
 
 
Handling and Storage
• Failure to keep stacks plumb.
• Improper forklift operations.
• Long-term storage resulting in crushing of
  shipping package(s).
• Pushing and dragging cargo when inadequate
  material handling equipment or in-experienced
  labor is used.
• Rapid acceleration and deceleration during
  lifting and lowering.
• Weight of superimposed packages.
 
 

Water Damage
• Condensation (ship/container or cargo sweat).
• Contact with rain, snow or sea water.
• Defective intermodal container, or ship-ping package.
• Flooding (cargo stored on inadequately drained surface).
• Hijacking of entire container and cargo.
• Inadequate security measures at storage, staging or          
  loading/discharge point.
• Misrouting or non-delivery of cargo due to 
  insufficient marks.
• Sprinkler discharge.
• Theft and Pilferage Hazards
 
Contamination
• Incompatible cargo stowed in the same hold or
  container.
• Infestation.
• Insects.
• Reptiles.
• Wildlife and rodents.
 
 
Fire
• Ignition caused by friction, spontaneous combustion,
  external heat and/or chemical sources.
• Smoke damage.
 
 
 
 
CAUSES OF LOSS
The figures in the following presentation, while based on our own loss experience, are of a sufficiently large volume of claims to be considered generally representative of the industry.
Approximately 80 percent of all cargo losses are preventable. The prudent ship-per recognizes that efforts in properly preparing, packing and marking shipments have a great influence on successful delivery of goods.
Attention to the basic principles and techniques of export packing will help reduce the loss of cargo due to pilferage, minimize damage from improper handling/storage and protect against water damage.
Customer satisfaction and repeat orders are only two of the benefits that stem from a professional approach to cargo shipment. Reductions of time and money spent in tracing, locating and making adjustments on lost, damaged or pilfered goods contribute to a better bottom line.

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