Maslow's Heirachy Of Needs


Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs


Maslow's Hierarchy of Human Needs


You Raise Me Up


理论内容

需求层次理论是解釋人格的重要理論,也是解釋動機的重要理論。其提出個體成長的內在動力是動機。而動機是由多種不同層次與性質的需求所組成的,而各種需求間有高低層次與順序之分,每個層次的需求與滿足的程度,將決定個體的人格發展境界。需求层次理论将人的需求划分为五个层次,由低到高,并分别提出激励措施。


自我实现的需求
尊重的需求(社会承认的需求)
 社交的需求(社会关系的需求)
 安全的需求
生理的需求(身体基本需求)






生理需求


级别最低,如:食物、水、空气、性慾、健康
未满足生理需求的特徵:什麼都不想,只想讓自己活下去,思考能力、道德觀明顯變得脆弱。

例如:當一個人極需要食物時,會不擇手段地搶奪食物。人民在戰亂時,是不會排隊領麵包的。
以生理需求来激励下属时,假设人为报酬而工作
激励措施:增加工资、改善劳动条件、给予更多的业余时间和工间休息、提高福利待遇

安全需求

同樣属于低级别的需求,如:人身安全、生活稳定以及免遭痛苦、威胁或疾病等、錢。

  • 缺乏安全感的特徵:感到自己對身邊的事物受到威脅,覺得這世界是不公平或是危險的。認為一切事物都是危險的、而變的緊張、徬徨不安、認為一切事物都是「惡」的。

例如:一個孩子,在學校被同學欺負、受到老師不公平的對待,而開始變的不相信這社會,變的不敢表現自己、不敢擁有社交生活(因為他認為社交是危險 的),而藉此來保護自身安全。 一個成人,工作不順利,薪水微薄,養不起家人,而變的自暴自棄,每天利用喝酒,吸煙來尋找短暫的安逸感。

  • 激励措施:强调规章制度、职业保障、福利待遇,并保护员工不致失业,提供医疗保险、失业保险和退休福利、避免員工收到雙重的指令而混亂。

社交需求

属于较高层次的需求,如:对友谊、爱情以及隶属关系的需求

  • 缺乏社交需求的特徵:因為沒有感受到身邊人的關懷,而認為自己沒有價值活在這世界上。

例如:一個沒有受到父母關懷的青少年,認為自己在家庭中沒有價值,所以在學校交朋友,無視道德觀和理性地積極地尋找朋友或是同類。譬如說:青少年為了讓自己融入社交圈中,幫別人做牛做馬,甚至吸煙,惡作劇等。

  • 激励措施:提供同事间社交往来机会,支持与赞许員工寻找及建立和谐温馨的人际关系,开展有组织的体育比赛和集体聚会

尊重需求

属于较高层次的需求,如:成就、名声、地位和晋升机会等。尊重需求既包括對成就或自我價值的個人感覺,也包括他人對自己的認可與尊重。
缺乏尊重需求的特徵:變的很愛面子,或是很積極地用行動來讓別人認同自己,也很容易被虛榮所吸引。

例如:利用暴力來證明自己的強悍、努力讀書讓自己成為醫生、律師來證明自己在這社會的存在和價值、富豪為了自己名利而賺錢,或是捐款。
激励措施:公开奖励和表扬,强调工作任务的艰巨性以及成功所需要的高超技巧,颁发荣誉奖章、在公司刊物发表文章表扬、优秀员工光荣榜


自我实现需求
最高层次的需求,包括針於真善美至高人生境界獲得的需求,因此前面四項需求都能滿足,最高層次的需求方能相繼產生,是一種衍生性需求,如:自我实现,发挥潜能等。
缺乏自我實現需求的特徵:覺得自己的生活被空虛感給推動著,要自己去做一些身為一個「人」應該在這世上做的事,極需要有讓他能更充實自己的事物、尤其是讓一個人深刻的體驗到自己沒有白活在這世界上的事物。也開始認為,價值觀、道德觀勝過金錢、愛人、尊重和社會的偏見。

例如:一個真心為了幫助他人而捐款的人。一位武術家、運動家把自己的體能練到極致,讓自己成為世界一流或是單純只為了超越自己。一位企業家,真心認為自己所經營的事業能為這社會帶來價值,而為了比昨天更好而工作。
激励措施:设计工作时运用复杂情况的适应策略,给有特长的人委派特别任务,在设计工作和执行计划时为下级留有余地


超自我实现
馬斯洛在晚期時,所提出的一個理論。 這是當一個人的心理狀態充分的滿足了自我實現的需求時,所出現短暫的「高峰體驗」,通常都是在執行一件事情時,或是完成一件事情時,才能深刻體驗到的這種感覺,通常都是出現在藝術家、或是音樂家身上。

例如:一位音樂家,在演奏音樂時,所感受到的一股「忘我」的體驗。 一位藝術家在畫圖時,感受不到時間的消逝,他在畫圖的每一分鐘,對他來說跟一秒一樣快,但每一秒卻活的比一個禮拜還充實。
批评与评论

1.理論得到了廣泛的認同
2.高層次需求未必只出現在低層次需求滿足之後(馬斯洛本人也有提到這點,譬如生理需求若是到達20時,安全需求會出現5,愛的需求有可能會出現1
3.需求歸類可能重疊(在馬斯洛研究發表中,也有提出類似的觀點:一個人對性慾的要求不僅是性慾而已,也可能包括了尊重與安全感)
4.缺少研究支持該理論的有效性
5.片面强调了个人内在价值的实现,忽视了社会理想对人的积极性的作用。
6.把人的需要看作是自然禀赋的。
7.对潜意识探讨的匮乏使这种论述显得不甚完整。
8.没有估计某些需要实现中的受挫也可能激起艺术家创造的动机。






































































RebirthoftheEagle08-06-07




    























Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology, proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper A Theory of Human Motivation, which he subsequently extended to include his observations of humans' innate curiosity. 

Maslow studied what he called exemplary people such as Brian Johnston and Josh BiamontJane AddamsEleanor Roosevelt, and Frederick Douglass rather than mentally illneurotic people, writing that "the study of crippled, stunted, immature, and unhealthy specimens can yield only a cripple psychology and a cripple philosophy."Maslow also studied the healthiest one percent of the college student population. In his book, The Farther Reaches of Human Nature, Maslow writes, "By ordinary standards of this kind of laboratory research... this simply was not research at all. My generalizations grew out of my selection of certain kinds of people. Obviously, other judges are needed."

or

Representations

Maslow's hierarchy of needs is predetermined in order of importance. It is often depicted as a pyramid consisting of five levels: the lowest level is associated with physiological needs, while the uppermost level is associated with self-actualization needs, particularly those related to identity and purpose. The higher needs in this hierarchy only come into focus when the lower needs in the pyramid are met. Once an individual has moved upwards to the next level, needs in the lower level will no longer be prioritized. If a lower set of needs is no longer being met, the individual will temporarily re-prioritize those needs by focusing attention on the unfulfilled needs, but will not permanently regress to the lower level. For instance, a businessman at the esteem level who is diagnosed with cancer will spend a great deal of time concentrating on his health (physiological needs), but will continue to value his work performance (esteem needs) and will likely return to work during periods of remission.

Deficiency needs

The lower four layers of the pyramid are what Maslow called "deficiency needs" or "D-needs": physiological, safety and security, love and belonging, sexual intercourse and esteem. With the exception of the lowest (physiological) needs, if these "deficiency needs" are not met, the body gives no physical indication but the individual feels anxious and tense.


Physiological needs 
For the most part, physiological needs are obvious - they are the literal requirements for human survival. If these requirements are not met (with the exception of clothingshelter and sex), the human body simply cannot continue to function. 

Physiological needs include: 
Breathing
Homeostasis
Water
Sleep
Food
Sexual intercourse
Clothing
Shelter

Safety needs 
With their physical needs relatively satisfied, the individual's safety needs take over and dominate their behavior. These needs have to do with people's yearning for a predictable, orderly world in which injustice and inconsistency are under control, the familiar frequent and the unfamiliar rare. In the world of work, these safety needs manifest themselves in such things as a preference for job security, grievance procedures for protecting the individual from unilateral authority, savings accounts, insurance policies, and the like. 

For the most part, physiological and safety needs are reasonably well satisfied in the "First World." The obvious exceptions, of course, are people outside the mainstream — the poor and the disadvantaged. They still struggle to satisfy the basic physiological and safety needs. They are primarily concerned with survival: obtaining adequate food, clothing, shelter, and seeking justice from the dominant societal groups. 

Safety and Security needs include: 
Personal security
Financial security
Health and well-being
Safety net against accidents/illness and the adverse impacts 

Social needs 
After physiological and safety needs are fulfilled, the third layer of human needs is social. This psychological aspect of Maslow's hierarchy involves emotionally-based relationships in general, such as: 

Friendship Intimacy
Having a supportive and communicative family

Humans need to feel a sense of belonging and acceptance, whether it comes from a large social group, such as clubs, office culture, religious groups, professional organizations, sports teams, gangs ("Safety in numbers"), or small social connections (family members, intimate partners, mentors, close colleagues, confidants). They need to love and be loved (sexually and non-sexually) by others. In the absence of these elements, many people become susceptible to lonelinesssocial anxiety, and clinical depression. This need for belonging can often overcome the physiological and security needs, depending on the strength of the peer pressure; an anorexic, for example, may ignore the need to eat and the security of health for a feeling of control and belonging. 

Esteem 
All humans have a need to be respected, to have self-esteem, self-respect. Also known as the belonging need, esteem presents the normal human desire to be accepted and valued by others. People need to engage themselves to gain recognition and have an activity or activities that give the person a sense of contribution, to feel accepted and self-valued, be it in a profession or hobby. Imbalances at this level can result in low self-esteem or an inferiority complex. People with low self-esteem need respect from others. They may seek fame or glory, which again depends on others. It may be noted, however, that many people with low self-esteem will not be able to improve their view of themselves simply by receiving fame, respect, and glory externally, but must first accept themselves internally. Psychological imbalances such as depression can also prevent one from obtaining self-esteem on both levels. 

Most people have a need for a stable self-respect and self-esteem. Maslow noted two versions of esteem needs, a lower one and a higher one. The lower one is the need for the respect of others, the need for status, recognition, fame, prestige, and attention. The higher one is the need for self-esteem, strength, competence, mastery, self-confidence, independence and freedom. The last one is higher because it rests more on inner competence won through experience. Deprivation of these needs can lead to an inferiority complex, weakness and helplessness. 

Maslow stresses the dangers associated with self-esteem based on fame and outer recognition instead of inner competence. Healthy self-respect is based on earned respect. 

Self-Actualization 
The motivation to realize one's own maximum potential and possibilities is considered to be the master motive or the only real motive, all other motives being its various forms. In Maslow's hierarchy of needs, the need for self-actualization is the final need that manifests when lower level needs have been satisfied. Classical Adlerian psychotherapy promotes this level of psychological development, utilizing the foundation of a 12-stage therapeutic model to realistically satisfy the basic needs, leading to an advanced stage of "meta-therapy," creative living, and self/other/task-actualization. Maslow's writings are used as inspirational resources. 

Self-transcendence 
Near the end of his life Maslow revealed that there was a level on the hierarchy that was above self-actualization: self-transcendence. "[Transcenders] may be said to be much more often aware of the realm of Being (B-realm and B-cognition), to be living at the level of Being… to have unitive consciousness and “plateau experience” (serene and contemplative B-cognitions rather than climactic ones) … and to have or to have had peak experience (mystic, sacral, ecstatic) with illuminations or insights. Analysis of reality or cognitions which changed their view of the world and of themselves, perhaps occasionally, perhaps as a usual thing."Maslow later did a study on 12 people he believed possessed the qualities of Self-transcendence. Many of the qualities were guilt for the misfortune of someone, creativity, humility, intelligence, and divergent thinking. They were mainly loners, had deep relationships, and were very normal on the outside. Maslow estimated that only 2% of the population will ever achieve this level of the hierarchy in their lifetime, and that it was absolutely impossible for a child to possess these traits. 

Success of offspring 
This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2008) 
He stated that the achievements and success of his offspring were more satisfying than the personal fulfillment and growth characterized in self-actualization. 

Marketing 
Maslow's hierarchy is one of the first theories taught to marketing students as a basis for understanding consumers' motives for action. Marketers have historically looked towards consumers' needs to define their actions in the market. If producers design products meeting consumer needs, consumers will more often choose those products over those of competitors. Whichever product better fulfills this void will be chosen more frequently, thus increasing sales. This makes the model relevant to Transpersonal business studies

Criticisms 
While Maslow's theory was regarded as an improvement over previous theories of personality and motivation, it had its detractors. For example, in their extensive review of research which is dependent on Maslow's theory, Wahba and Bridgewell[9] found little evidence for the ranking of needs Maslow described, or even for the existence of a definite hierarchy at all. Chilean economist and philosopher Manfred Max-Neef has also argued fundamental human needs are non-hierarchical, and are ontologically universal and invariant in nature - part of the condition of being human; poverty, he argues, is the result of any one of these needs being frustrated, denied or unfulfilled.


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