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介紹
An individual or organization may, in the course of carrying on day-to-day business, injure another person or damage  
property belonging to another person, which may in turn result in claim or lawsuit seeking for compensation.
任何個人或組織可以在這一過程中進行的日常工作日常事務,傷害他人或破壞他人財物,因而可能會導致索賠或提起訴訟,要求賠償。

These liability exposures may arise from defective product supplied, completed operation hazard, defective premises,
 
plants or equipment, 
or any other unforeseen hazard within or outside the business premises.
這些可能出現的風險責任由缺陷產品供應,完成作業的危險,有缺陷的前提下, 工廠或設備,或任何其他不可預見的危險境內或境外的營業場所。

In addition to the aforesaid exposure, there may be strict liability exposure imposed by common law or statutes. Public                                                              
Liability and Product Liability
除了上述 曝光,有可能會暴露實行嚴格的責任共同的法律或法規。公眾責任及產品責任

Insurance Policy is therefore designed to provide a more comprehensive cover against such potential liability exposures.

因此,保險政策旨在提供一個更全面的覆蓋對這些潛在的責任風險。


Like product liability policy, a proposer would have to select an appropriate limit of indemnity (Sum Insured) that may
                                                       
commensurate with the kind of potential liability exposure.
如產品責任險,一投保人必須選擇一個適當的賠償額(保額),可能相稱的那種潛在的責任風險。

Coverage 覆蓋
To indemnify against insured's legal liability to pay compensation (damages) for accidental bodily injury or property damage
sustained by third party by reason of insured carrying on his business including the products sold or supplied.
對保險賠償的法律責任支付賠償(賠償)意外人身傷害或財產損失持續由第三方原因被保險進行業務包括產品銷售或供應。
In addition to such compensation, it also pays for legal costs and expenses in connection therewith.
The limit of indemnity is inclusive of legal costs and expenses.
除了這種賠償,也支付法律費用及開支與此有關。  該限制是包容性的賠償法律費用及開支。

Basis of Indemnity 基礎賠款
This policy is on ''Claims Made'' basis.  It means that this policy will only apply to a claim made against insured during the
policy period.這項政策是在製造'' ''索賠依據。這意味著,這一政策只適用於對被保險人提出索賠時提出保險期間。
''Claim made'' means a written claim/demand issued or lawsuit instituted by third party seeking compensation '' for his injury or damage.
''手段主張中提出的書面要求/需求簽發或提起訴訟,由第三方要求賠償對他的傷害或損壞。

Retroactive Cover 追溯封面
If policy states a retroactive date, it will only cover claims (made against insured during the policy period) resulting from occurrences
which take place after such retroactive date.

若政策規定追溯日期,將只包括債權(對被保險人在取得保險期間)造成事件發生後,發生這樣的追溯日期。
Retroactive date can be the policy inception date or a date way back in the past.
追溯日期可以是保單生效日期或日期的方法
回到過去。
However, no retroactive cover will be granted to a proposer who does not have public liability and product
liability cover or equivalent previously.
但是,沒有追溯覆蓋將給予一提議誰沒有公眾責任及產品
責任保險或相當於以前。


Principal Exclusions 首席排除
Pollution liability 污染責任
Professional liability 專業責任
Contractual or assumed liability 合同或承擔法律責任
Workmen Compensation or Employer's Liability 工人補償或雇主的責任
Fines, Penalties, Punitive or Exemplary Damages 罰金,罰款,懲罰性或懲罰性賠償
Asbestos Liability or Urea Formaldehyde 石棉責任或尿素甲醛
Products used or installed in or on aircraft 產品使用或安裝在飛機上或
Replacement costs or refund payment of insured products, Product Recall 更換費用或退還被保險人支付的產品,產品召回
Terrorism or war 恐怖主義或戰爭
Radiations or nuclear 輻射或核
Loss of or damage to property worked upon 喪失或財產損失的工作時
Loss of or damage to property in care, custody or control 損失或損壞財產,保管或控制
Vibration or weakening of support 振動或削弱支持
(The above are the principal exclusions of the policy. Please refer to the policy for a (以上是主要的排除政策。請參閱保單為
complete list and details of all exclusions.) 完整的名單和細節都排除。)


Extensions (optional and with additional premium) 擴展(可選的額外溢價)
Sudden and Accidental Pollution Liability ( 72 hours) 突然和意外污染責任(72小時)
Indemnity to Directors or Executive Officers 賠款,董事或行政人員
Excess Automobile Liability 超額汽車責任
Broad Form Property Damage 廣泛的形式財產損壞


Documents required for applying a Product Liability Policy 所需文件申請一個產品責任保險
For both new and renewal risks and all requests for quotation must be by way of submitting the following document to
the Liability Unit at Head Office:
對於新的和更新的風險和所有的請求必須由報價方式提交下列文件
在責任單位的總公司:
Duly completed, signed and dated Public Liability and Product Liability Proposal Form; 填妥,簽署並註明日期的公眾責任及產品責任申請表;
Product brochures or samples; 產品說明書或樣本;
Written Quality Control Procedure; 書面的質量控制程序;
Products Quality Assurance Certificates; 產品質量保證證書;
Details (date, nature, amount and status of loss) of previous claims/losses (if any). 詳細信息(日期,性質,數量和狀態的損失)以往的申索/虧損(如有)。


Minimum Premium: Upon Enquiries 最低保費:經查詢


Decline Risks (by products or sectors) 下降風險(按產品或行業)
  • Animal feeds 動物飼料                                                                                                                                                                        
    Pollution control equipment 污染控制設備
  • Electrical control equipment 電氣控制設備
  • Products used in or on aircraft 使用的產品飛機
  • Drugs , medicines & pharmaceuticals 藥品 ,藥品和製藥
  • Tobacco or all products related thereto 煙草或與此有關的所有產品
  • Nutraceutical products for eg health food and dietary supplements 保健品產品如健康食品和膳食補充劑
  • Explosive , fireworks, gases (whether under pressure or not) or volatile petroleum products (other than petrol, diesel and paraffin)  
  • 炸藥 ,煙火,氣體(無論是根據壓力或不)或揮發性石油產品(除汽油,柴油和石蠟)
  • Automobiles , motorcycles or components/parts thereof namely structure/chassis, power-train, wheel-frames, tyres,                                                                                       braking -system, steering system, seat-belts and safety-helmets
  • 汽車 ,摩托車或部件/零件即結構/底盤,動力傳動,輪框,輪胎,制動系統,轉向系統,座椅安全帶和安全頭盔
  • Industrial chemicals (including but not limited to dyes, crop sprays, fertilizers, pest control, weed control, fumigants,                                                                               disinfectants, industrial cleaning agents and industrial detergents) 
  • 工業化學品 (包括但不限於染料,作物噴灑,肥料,病蟲害防治,雜草控制,熏蒸劑,消毒劑,工業清洗劑,工業洗滌劑)
  • Construction companies or contractors , Developers, Mining companies, Building-wrecking or demolition companies,                                                                                   Rock blasting companies, Toxic wastes disposal companies
  • 建築公司或承包商 ,開發商,礦業公司, 建築物破壞或拆卸公司,岩石爆破公司,有毒廢物處理公司
  • Oil and gas companies or contractors (offshore or onshore), Petrochemical companies and Refineries 
  • 石油和天然氣公司或承辦商(境外或境內),石化公司和煉油廠
  • Shipyards (ship-building, Ship-repairing, ship-breaking), Dockyards, Port or Terminal operators 
  • 船廠 (造船,修船,拆船),船塢,碼頭或 碼頭運營商
  • Airlines , Public transport companies, Shipping companies, Railways or Express rail operators 
  • 航空 ,公共運輸公司,船務公司,鐵路和高速鐵路運營商

Claims Procedures 索賠程序

  • Upon receipt of a claim or possible claim from a third party, to notify relevant insurer or us with the following basic information: 
  • 在收到索賠或可能從第三方索賠,保險人或有關通知我們以下基本信息:
  • Description and extent of loss/injury suffered by third party 描述和程度的損失/損害第三者遭受
  • Date of loss/accident 損失發生的日期/事故
  • Location 位置
  • Any demand made by third party either verbal or written 任何要求作出任何第三方口頭或書面
  • Details of policy involved 詳細的政策參與
  • Insured shall not in any circumstances admit the claim, make an offer, promise or payment to a third party without                                                              prior written consent from Insurer. 被保險人不得在任何情況下承認的索賠,作出要約,承諾或支付給第三方未經事先書面同意,由保險人。
  • Claim from third party 從第三者索賠
  • Insured must immediately forward to Insurer any letter of demand or legal proceedings received from the third party. 
  • 被保險人必須立即向保險公司提出任何字母或法律程序的要求得到了第三方。
  • Acknowledge receipt of the letter of demand and advise the third party's solicitors that Insurer has been notified                                                                                     and will be investigating the loss on a without prejudice basis. 
  • 確認收到該信件的需求,並建議第三方的代表律師,保險人已得到通知,將被調查的虧損沒有偏見的基礎。
  • If legal action is brought against Insured, Insurer will appoint solicitors to defend the insured pending determination                                                                                     of policy liability to protect insurer's interests. 
  • 如果法律對被保險人提起訴訟,保險公司將委任律師為他辯護有待確定保險責任的政策,以保護保險人的利益。
  • If investigations disclose that there is no policy liability, insured will take over conduct of the defence from insurer. 
  • 如果調查透露,有沒有政策的責任,被保險將接管進行辯護的保險公司。
  • In any circumstances, the Insured shall not admit liability or enter into any negotiation with the third party or                                                                                                 their solicitors without insurer's written consent. 
  • 在任何情況下,被保險人應不承認責任或進行任何談判與第三者或他們的律師未經保險人的書面同意。

  • Documents Checklist 文件清單
  • Completed Claim Form 填妥的索償表格
  • Copy of Police Report, if any Photographs depicting damage 複製的警方報告,如有損壞照片描繪
  • Copy of Police Report, if any 複製的警方報告,如有
  • Detailed account of how, where and when the loss was discovered 詳細說明如何,何時何地被發現的損失
  • Estimate of loss 估計損失
  • Investigation/Incident Report 調查/事件報告
  • Letter of claim/demand from third party 信中要求/需求第三者
  • Written statements from witnesses 證人的書面陳述


Introduction

An individual or organization may, in the course of carrying on day-to-day business, injure another person or
damage property belonging to another person, which may in turn result in claim or lawsuit seeking for compensation.
These liability exposures may arise from defective product supplied, completed operation hazard, defective premises,
plants or equipment, or any other unforeseen hazard within or outside the business premises. In addition to the aforesaid
exposure, there may be strict liability exposure imposed by common law or statutes.
Public Liability and Product Liability
Insurance Policy is therefore designed to provide a more comprehensive cover against such potential liability exposures.
Like product liability policy, a proposer would have to select an appropriate limit of indemnity (Sum Insured) that may
commensurate with the kind of potential liability exposure.

Coverage
To indemnify against insured's legal liability to pay compensation (damages) for accidental bodily injury or property damage
sustained by third party by reason of insured carrying on his business including the products sold or supplied. In addition to
such compensation, it also pays for legal costs and expenses in connection therewith. The limit of indemnity is inclusive of
legal costs and expenses.

Basis of Indemnity
This policy is on ''Claims Made'' basis. It means that this policy will only apply to a claim made against insured during the
policy period. ''Claim made'' means a written claim/demand issued or lawsuit instituted by third party seeking compensation
for his injury or damage.

Retroactive Cover
If policy states a retroactive date, it will only cover claims (made against insured during the policy period) resulting from
occurrences which take place after such retroactive date. Retroactive date can be the policy inception date or a date way
back in the past. However, no retroactive cover will be granted to a proposer who does not have public liability and product
liability cover or equivalent previously.



Principal Exclusions
Pollution liability
Professional liability
Contractual or assumed liability
Workmen Compensation or Employer's Liability
Fines, Penalties, Punitive or Exemplary Damages
Asbestos Liability or Urea Formaldehyde
Products used or installed in or on aircraft
Replacement costs or refund payment of insured products, Product Recall
Terrorism or war
Radiations or nuclear
Loss of or damage to property worked upon
Loss of or damage to property in care, custody or control
Vibration or weakening of support
(The above are the principal exclusions of the policy. Please refer to the policy for a
complete list and details of all exclusions.)


Extensions (optional and with additional premium)
Sudden and Accidental Pollution Liability (72 hours)
Indemnity to Directors or Executive Officers
Excess Automobile Liability
Broad Form Property Damage


Documents required for applying a Product Liability Policy
For both new and renewal risks and all requests for quotation must be by way of submitting the following document to
the Liability Unit at Head Office:

Duly completed, signed and dated Public Liability and Product Liability Proposal Form;
Product brochures or samples;
Written Quality Control Procedure;
Products Quality Assurance Certificates;
Details (date, nature, amount and status of loss) of previous claims/losses (if any).


Minimum Premium: Upon Enquiries


Decline Risks (by products or sectors)
  • Animal feeds                                                                                                                                                                       
    Pollution
    control equipment
  • Electrical control equipment
  • Products used in or on aircraft
  • Drugs, medicines & pharmaceuticals
  • Tobacco or all products related thereto
  • Nutraceutical products for e.g. health food and dietary supplements
  • Explosive, fireworks, gases (whether under pressure or not) or volatile petroleum products (other than petrol, diesel and paraffin)
  • Automobiles, motorcycles or components/parts thereof namely structure/chassis, power-train, wheel-frames, tyres, braking -                                                                                      system, steering system, seat-belts and safety-helmets
  • Industrial chemicals (including but not limited to dyes, crop sprays, fertilizers, pest control, weed control, fumigants,disinfectants,                                                                             industrial cleaning agents and industrial detergents)
  • Construction companies or contractors, Developers, Mining companies, Building-wrecking or demolition companies,                                                                                                  Rock blasting companies, Toxic wastes disposal companies
  • Oil and gas companies or contractors (offshore or onshore), Petrochemical companies and Refineries
  • Shipyards (ship-building, Ship-repairing, ship-breaking), Dockyards, Port or Terminal operators
  • Airlines, Public transport companies, Shipping companies, Railways or Express rail operators

Claims Procedures

  • Upon receipt of a claim or possible claim from a third party, to notify relevant insurer or us with the following basic information:
  • Description and extent of loss/injury suffered by third party
  • Date of loss/accident
  • Location
  • Any demand made by third party either verbal or written
  • Details of policy involved
  • Insured shall not in any circumstances admit the claim, make an offer, promise or payment to a third party without
  • prior written consent from Insurer.
  • Claim from third party
  • Insured must immediately forward to Insurer any letter of demand or legal proceedings received from the third party.
  • Acknowledge receipt of the letter of demand and advise the third party's solicitors that Insurer has been notified                                                                                                    and will be investigating the loss on a without prejudice basis.
  • If legal action is brought against Insured, Insurer will appoint solicitors to defend the insured pending determination                                                                                              of policy liability to protect insurer's interests. If investigations disclose that there is no policy liability, insured will                                                                                             take over conduct of the defence from insurer.
  • In any circumstances, the Insured shall not admit liability or enter into any negotiation with the third party or                                                                                                         their solicitors without insurer's written consent.

  • Documents Checklist
  • Completed Claim Form
  • Copy of Police Report, if any Photographs depicting damage
  • Copy of Police Report, if any
  • Detailed account of how, where and when the loss was discovered
  • Estimate of loss
  • Investigation/Incident Report
  • Letter of claim/demand from third party
  • Written statements from witnesses

Product Liability Presentation

Who is at risk




























Malaysian Governing Bodies - Consumer Association/ Products Certification
 

Chapter 13 - Business Law

 

Product Liability and the Internet

 Product Liability Glossary
    

Disclaimer
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The International Comparative Legal Guide to:Product Liability 2006 國際比較法律指南:2006年產品責任  May 15, 2010, 3:15 AM Simon Poon
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里貝克訴麥當勞餐廳案(英語:Liebeck v. McDonald's Restaurants[1]),又稱麥當勞咖啡案,是美國一宗著名的產品責任訴訟,並觸起法學界對美國有關侵權行為法律的改革展開辯論。案件中的一名婦人因為不小心地以熱咖啡燙傷自己,結果獲陪審團表決賠償290萬美元。事後,主審法官裁定將賠償額減至64万美元,不過麥當勞與事主在上訴前成功達成協議,在賠償金額保密的情況下,雙方庭外和解。事件在美國引起了很大反響,普遍輿論更認為這是一宗浪費公帑的無聊訴訟[2][3]。  May 15, 2010, 3:16 AM Simon Poon